Updated: Mar 11
Cosmic microwave background radiation
The big bang theory is based upon the cosmological principle, which states that on large scales the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic.
According to theory, the Universe approximately a second after its formation was a near-ideal black body in thermal equilibrium at a temperature above 10K. The temperature decreased as the Universe expanded and the matter and radiation in it cooled.
The cosmic microwave background radiation observed today is “the most perfect black body ever measured in nature”. It has a nearly ideal Planck spectrum at a temperature of about 2.7 K. It departs from the perfect isotropy of true black-body radiation by an observed anisotropy that varies with angle on the sky only to about one part in 100,000.